Purified phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom were examined to evaluate NIH 3T3 and COS7 fibroblast cytotoxicity, as well as muscle myotoxic and inflammatory activities. Separation of fractions Bj-VII (from BthTX-I; a Lys49 PLA2 homolog) and 6-1 and 6-2 (from BthTX-II; an Asp49 PLA2) from B. jararacussu snake venom by SDS-PAGE in tricine buffer in the absence and presence of dithiothreitol revealed a homodimer with an estimated molecular mass of ∼30 kDa (monomer mass ∼15 kDa). This finding indicates that these toxins form dimeric complexes-a previously reported tendency among PLA2s. These toxins were assayed for viability with the MTT assay, which is used to examine the effects of phospholipases on the mitochondrial viability of cells. The toxins were also assayed for cytolysis of the fibroblast cell lines NIH 3T3 and COS7 by quantification of lactate dehydrogenase released into the medium. The results indicate that the PLA2s 6-1, 6-2 and the Bj-VII PLA2 homolog studied here induce moderate footpad edema and local myotoxicity. Moreover, exposure to these phospholipases led to a reduction in fibroblast viability; at the 1 μM dose of PLA2 tested, a reduction of 50% in cell viability was observed. The present findings indicate that the inflammatory activity observed in envenomation may be correlated with the cytotoxicity observed in fibroblasts.