Cr 5 PLA2 homologous (K49) was isolated from Calloselasma rhodostoma venom in only one chromatographic step in reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) (on μ-Bondapack C-18). A molecular mass of 13.965 Da was determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The amino acid composition showed that Cr 5 had a high content of Lys, Tyr, Gly, Pro, and 14 half-Cys residues, typical residues of a basic PLA2. The complete amino acid sequence of Cr 5 PLA2 contains 120 residues, resulting in a calculated pI value of 5.55. This sequence shows high identity values when compared to other K49 PLA2s isolated from the venoms of viperid snakes. Lower identity is observed in comparison to D49 PLA2s. The sequence found was SLVELGKMIL QETGKNPAKS YGAYGCNCGV LGRHKPKDAT DRCCFVHKCC YKKLTGCDPK KDRYSYSWKD KTIVCGENNP CLKEMCECDK AVAICLRENL DTYNKKYRYL KPFCKKADDC. In mice, Cr 5 induced myonecrosis and edema upon intramuscular and intravenous injections, respectively. The LD50 of Cr 5 was 0.070 mg/kg of the animal weight, by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) route. In vitro, the toxin caused rapid cytolytic effect upon mouse skeletal muscle myoblasts in culture. The isolation of this PLA2 and the combined structural and functional information obtained classify Cr 5 as a new member of the K49 PLA2 family, since it presents typical features from such proteins.