New candidates for serological markers against leishmaniasis are required to be identified, since the presence of high titers of anti-Leishmania antibodies remain detected in sera of treated and cured patients, when current antigens have being employed. In this study, the diagnostic performance of a conserved Leishmania hypothetical protein was evaluated against a human and canine serological panel. The serological follow-up of the patients was also evaluated, using this recombinant antigen (rLiHyS) in ELISA assays. In the results, high sensitivity and specificity values were found when rLiHyS was used in the serological tests, while when the recombinant A2 (rA2) protein or an antigenic Leishmania preparation were used as controls, low sensitivity and specificity were found. Regarding the serological follow-up of the patients, significant reductions in the anti-rLiHyS antibody levels were found and, one year after the treatments, the anti-protein IgG production was similar to this found in the non-infected groups, reflecting a drop of the anti-rLiHyS antibody production. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time a new recombinant antigen used to identify tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis, as well as being able to serologically distinguish treated and cured patients from those developing active disease.