Objective. To analyze the association between relative handgrip strength (RHGS) and fat mass (FM) after controlling for the potential effect of maturity status. Methodology. Both male and female children and adolescents aged ≥ 7.5 to ≤ 15.49 years were studied. RHGS was assessed using a hydraulic hand dynamometer. FM percentage was established using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Age and sex differences in RHGS levels between normal weight and obese participants were studied with an analysis of covariance. A covariate was years from peak height velocity (maturity status). The association between RHGS and FM levels was analyzed using a partial correlation and controlling for age at peak height velocity. Results. A total of 1685 students (731 girls and 954 boys) participated. Four age groups were established (7.5-9.4 years, 9.5-11.4 years, 11.5- 13.4 years, and 13.5-15.4 years). RHGS increased with age in both males and females. FM values were high in all age groups. No differences were observed in groups 3 and 4 among girls or in group 4 among boys. Participants classified as normal weight showed a significantly higher RHGS than their obese peers. A negative association was noted between RHGS and FM. Conclusion. RHGS was shown to be negatively associated with FM after controlling for the effect of maturity status.