Treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is hindered mainly by the toxicity and/or high cost of therapeutic drugs. In addition, parasite resistance has been registered. Thus, there is an urgent need for the identification of novel, effective and low-cost antileishmanial agents. Since drug discovery is a long and expensive process, drug repositioning for treatment of leishmaniasis should be considered. In the present study, Ivermectin (IVE), a broad-spectrum drug used for treatment of parasitic diseases, was evaluated in vitro and in vivo against Leishmania infantum species. Results in vitro showed that IVE presented 50% Leishmania and macrophage inhibitory concentrations (IC50 and CC50, respectively) of 3.64 ± 0.48 μM and 427.50 ± 17.60 μM, respectively, with a selectivity index (SI) of 117.45; whereas Amphotericin B (AmpB), which was used as control, showed IC50 and CC50 values of 0.12 ± 0.05 μM and 1.06 ± 0.23 μM, respectively, with a corresponding SI of 8.90. Treatment with IVE effectively reduced the infection percentage and parasite burden in infected and treated macrophages and displayed a prophylactic activity by inhibiting macrophage infection with pre-treated parasites. Furthermore, preliminary studies suggested that IVE targets the parasite's mitochondria. Activity of IVE in its free format or incorporated into Pluronic® F127-based polymeric micelles (IVE/Mic) was also evaluated in vivo as a treating drug for L. infantum-infected BALB/c mice. Miltefosine was used as a control. Results showed that Miltefosine, IVE and IVE/Mic-treated animals presented significant reductions in the parasite load in their spleens, livers, bone marrows and draining lymph nodes, as well as development of an antileishmanial Th1-type immune response one and 15 days after treatment. Notably, IVE/Mic showed a better parasitological and immunological response in comparison to other alternative treatments. In conclusion, results suggest that IVE/Mic could be considered in future studies as a therapeutic alternative to treat VL.