Integrated metabolite analysis and health-relevant in vitro functionality of white, red, and orange maize (Zea mays L.) from the Peruvian Andean race Cabanita at different maturity stages

Lena Gálvez Ranilla, Gastón Zolla, Ana Afaray-Carazas, Miguel Vera-Vega, Hugo Huanuqueño, Huber Begazo-Gutiérrez, Rosana Chirinos, Romina Pedreschi, Kalidas Shetty

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva

Resumen

The high maize (Zea mays L.) diversity in Peru has been recognized worldwide, but the investigation focused on its integral health-relevant and bioactive characterization is limited. Therefore, this research aimed at studying the variability of the primary and the secondary (free and dietary fiber-bound phenolic, and carotenoid compounds) metabolites of three maize types (white, red, and orange) from the Peruvian Andean race Cabanita at different maturity stages (milk-S1, dough-S2, and mature-S3) using targeted and untargeted methods. In addition, their antioxidant potential, and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities relevant for hyperglycemia management were investigated using in vitro models. Results revealed a high effect of the maize type and the maturity stage. All maize types had hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids in their free phenolic fractions, whereas major bound phenolic compounds were ferulic acid, ferulic acid derivatives, and p-coumaric acid. Flavonoids such as luteolin derivatives and anthocyanins were specific in the orange and red maize, respectively. The orange and red groups showed higher phenolic ranges (free + bound) (223.9–274.4 mg/100 g DW, 193.4– 229.8 mg/100 g DW for the orange and red maize, respectively) than the white maize (162.2–225.0 mg/100 g DW). Xanthophylls (lutein, zeaxanthin, neoxanthin, and a lutein isomer) were detected in all maize types. However, the orange maize showed the highest total carotenoid contents (3.19–5.87 μg/g DW). Most phenolic and carotenoid compounds decreased with kernel maturity in all cases. In relation to the primary metabolites, all maize types had similar fatty acid contents (linoleic acid > oleic acid > palmitic acid > α-linolenic acid > stearic acid) which increased with kernel development. Simple sugars, alcohols, amino acids, free fatty acids, organic acids, amines, and phytosterols declined along with grain maturity and were overall more abundant in white maize at S1. The in vitro functionality was similar among Cabanita maize types, but it decreased with the grain development, and showed a high correlation with the hydrophilic free phenolic fraction. Current results suggest that the nutraceutical characteristics of orange and white Cabanita maize are better at S1 and S2 stages while the red maize would be more beneficial at S3.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo1132228
PublicaciónFrontiers in Nutrition
Volumen10
DOI
EstadoPublicada - 2023

Huella

Profundice en los temas de investigación de 'Integrated metabolite analysis and health-relevant in vitro functionality of white, red, and orange maize (Zea mays L.) from the Peruvian Andean race Cabanita at different maturity stages'. En conjunto forman una huella única.

Citar esto