The present study evaluated the cytokine profile in PBMC supernatants and the humoral response in mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) patients and in healthy subjects living in an endemic area. Four proteins, which had previously proven to be antigenic in the human disease, were tested: LiHyM, enolase, eukaryotic initiation factor 5a, and Beta-tubulin. Results showed that all of the proteins stimulated human cells with higher IFN-γ and lower IL-4 and IL-10 levels. The analysis of antibody isotypes correlated with cell response, since the IgG2 production was higher than IgG1 in both groups. By contrast, a Th2 response was found when an antigenic Leishmania extract was used. Serological analyses revealed high sensitivity and specificity values for the serodiagnosis of the disease, when compared to the data obtained using the antigenic preparation. In conclusion, this study presents new candidates to be evaluated as biomarkers in tegumentary leishmaniasis.