Monkeypox is a zoonosis that re-emerged in 2022, generating cases in non-endemic countries for the disease and creating a public health issue. The rapid increase in the number of cases kindles a need for quick, inexpensive diagnostic tests for the epidemiological control of the disease. The high cost of molecular tests can make this control more difficult to access in poorer regions, with immunological tests being a more viable option. In this mini-review, a search was conducted in the main databases for peptide and protein options that could be used in the development of serological diagnostic tests. Nine viable registres were found, and seven were selected (two patents and five studies). The main studies used the B21R peptide sequence as it is a high immunogenic epitope. In addition, studies on the improvement of these sequences were also found to avoid cross-reactions against other viruses of the same family, proposing a rational approach using multiepitope recombinant proteins. These approaches demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity values and are seen as viable options for developing new tests. New effective serological testing options, when combined with awareness, disease surveillance, early diagnosis, and rapid communication, form a set of key strategies used by health systems to control the spread of the monkeypox virus.