The serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) presents problems related to the sensitivity and/or specificity of the tests. In this context, more refined antigens should be identified and applied for the improvement of disease diagnosis. In the present study, DNA with an encoding of a Leishmania infantum hypothetical protein, LiHyC, was cloned, and the recombinant protein was expressed, purified, and evaluated for the serodiagnosis of canine and human VL. In addition, a specific B-cell epitope present in the LiHyC sequence was predicted; the peptide was both synthetized and evaluated in the ELISA experiments. For comparison, commercial diagnostic kits were used against positive (VL hosts) and negative (healthy hosts) samples. Results showed that the recombinant protein (rLiHyC) and synthetic peptide (PeptC) were highly sensitive and specific to diagnose canine and human VL, with 100% sensitivity and specificity, while no false-positive or false-negative result was detected. When the DPP® CVL kit was used to identify canine samples, 44 and 52 of the 60 L. infantum-infected animals, without or with clinical signals of disease, respectively, were identified, while eight and four samples were considered as false-negatives, respectively. For human VL, an IT LEISH® kit was used, and 33 of the 40 VL patients were identified, while seven samples were considered to be false-negatives. Post-therapeutic serological follow-up testing sera samples from treated and untreated VL patients showed a significant drop in the anti-PeptC and anti-rLiHyC antibody levels, thus suggesting the feasibility to use the recombinant protein and/or synthetic peptide in future studies as diagnostic and/or prognostic markers for VL.