Variations in the Prevalence of Childhood Anemia by Ethnicity Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Peru

Agueda Muñoz-del-Carpio-Toia, Jerry K. Benites-Meza, Percy Herrera-Añazco, Vicente A. Benites-Zapata

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We aimed to determine the variations in the prevalence of childhood anemia according to the ethnic group before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru. Secondary analysis of the Demographic and Family Health Survey during 2016–2021. The outcome variable was anemia, and the exposure variable was maternal ethnicity. Also, we included sociodemographic and clinical confounding variables. We constructed generalized linear models of the Poisson family with a logarithmic link function. We evaluated 85,905 records; 30.34% had anemia, 50.83% were mestizo, 25.98% were Quechua, and 2% were Aymara. Compared with mestizos, Quechua children (PR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.07–1.15; p < 0.001), Aymara (PR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.27–1.44; p < 0.001), natives of the Amazon (PR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.12–1.28; p < 0.001) and those who belonged to other indigenous peoples (PR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.05–1.57; p = 0.013) had a higher prevalence of childhood anemia. On the contrary, compared to mestizos, white children had a lower prevalence of anemia (PR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89–0.99; p = 0.019). During the COVID-19 pandemic, compared to mestizos, only Quechua (PR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.08–1.23; p < 0.001) and Aymara (PR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.23–1.55; p < 0.001) had a higher prevalence of childhood anemia. Except for Afro-descendants, children from 6 to 59 months of age who belong to an ethnic minority had a higher probability of having childhood anemia than mestizos. However, only Quechua and Aymara children had higher odds of anemia during the COVID-19 pandemic than mestizos.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Immigrant and Minority Health
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Keywords

  • Anemia
  • Coronavirus infections
  • Health of indigenous peoples
  • Indians, South American
  • Minority groups

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