Potential of recombinant LiHyQ, a novel Leishmania infantum protein, for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis and as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for human leishmaniasis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection: A preliminary study

Thaís T.O. Santos, Fernanda F. Ramos, Isabela A.P. Gonçalves, Grasiele S.V. Tavares, Fernanda Ludolf, Raquel S. Bandeira, Alessandra M. Silva, João A. Oliveira-da-Silva, Thiago A.R. Reis, Amanda S. Machado, Daniela P. Lage, Camila S. Freitas, Danniele L. Vale, Vívian T. Martins, Livia A. Alves, Nathalia S. Guimarães, Ana Thereza Chaves, Miguel A. Chávez-Fumagalli, Gláucia F. Cota, Julia A.G. SilveiraUnaí Tupinambás, Denise U. Gonçalves, Myron Christodoulides, Eduardo A.F. Coelho

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3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Laboratory diagnosis of leishmaniasis shows variable efficacy in detecting infected mammalian hosts and there is a need to identify suitable antigens to improve the accuracy of diagnostic tests. In the present study, a L. infantum hypothetical protein called LiHyQ was evaluated for the diagnosis of tegumentary (TL) and visceral (VL) leishmaniasis using canine and human samples. A collection of dog sera (n=155) were tested and contained samples from asymptomatic (n=20) and symptomatic (n=25) VL animals, from healthy dogs living in endemic (n=25) or non-endemic (n=25) areas of disease, from Leish-Tec® vaccinated dogs (n=20) or from dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis (n=15), Babesia canis (n=10) and Trypanosoma cruzi (n=15). Sensitivity (Se), Specificity (Sp), Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of 100% were observed for rLiHyQ with these samples, whereas the Se, Sp, PPV and NPV values with L. infantum Soluble Leishmania Antigen (SLA) preparation were 60.0%, 99.0%, 96.0% and 86.0%, respectively. A collection of human sera (n=305) were tested and contained samples from TL (n=50) and VL (n=40) patients, from VL/HIV co-infected patients (n=35), from patients infected with HIV alone (n=30), Chagas Disease (n=30), malaria (n=10), tuberculosis (n=10), paracoccidioidomycosis (n=15), leprosy (n=30) or aspergillosis (n=15); and from healthy subjects (n=40). Se, Sp, PPV and NPV values of 100% were observed for rLiHyQ with these samples, whereas the Se, Sp, PPV and NPV values with SLA were 58.0%, 76.0%, 50.0% and 82.0%, respectively. The antibody reactivity against the protein was compared with commercial kits, and the kappa index varied from 0.95 to 1.00 for rLiHyQ, and of 0.55 to 0.82 for the kits. In addition, the serological follow-up of treated patients showed a significant reduction in rLiHyQ-specific IgG antibody levels. All canine and human samples were tested at the same time using the same reagents, in order to reduce experimental variation and interference in data interpretation. In conclusion, our preliminary data suggest a diagnostic and prognostic role for rLiHyQ against leishmaniasis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106126
JournalActa Tropica
Volume224
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • Diagnosis
  • Dogs
  • Humans
  • Hypothetical proteins
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Prognosis

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