Poloxamer 407 (Pluronic® F127)-based polymeric micelles for amphotericin B: In vitro biological activity, toxicity and in vivo therapeutic efficacy against murine tegumentary leishmaniasis

Débora V.C. Mendonça, Letícia M.R. Lage, Daniela P. Lage, Miguel A. Chávez-Fumagalli, Fernanda Ludolf, Bruno M. Roatt, Daniel Menezes-Souza, André A.G. Faraco, Rachel O. Castilho, Carlos A.P. Tavares, José Mário Barichello, Mariana C. Duarte, Eduardo A.F. Coelho

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39 Scopus citations

Abstract

In the present study, a Poloxamer 407-based amphotericin B (AmpB)-containing polymeric micelles system (AmpB/M) was employed in the treatment of Leishmania amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice. Initially, the in vitro antileishmanial activity (IC50 value) of AmpB/M and B-AmpB/M (empty micelles) against stationary promastigotes and amastigotes-like forms of the parasites was determined, and results were of 1.83 ± 0.4 and 22.1 ± 0.7 μM, respectively, for the promastigotes, and of 2.27 ± 0.5 and 33.98 ± 2.6 μM, respectively, for the amastigotes-like. The cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values of these products were also evaluated, and we found the results of 119.5 ± 9.6 and 134.7 ± 10.3 μM, respectively. With these values, the selectivity index (SI) was calculated and results were of 65.3 and 5.4, respectively, for the promastigotes, and of 59.3 and 3.96, respectively, for the amastigotes-like of the parasites. Free AmpB showed IC50 values of 1.2 ± 0.3 and 2.5 ± 0.5 μM for the promastigotes and amastigotes-like, respectively, whereas the CC50 value was of 9.5 ± 0.4 μM. The SI values of this drug were of 7.9 and 3.8, respectively, for the promastigote and amastigote-like stages of the parasites. After, animals were infected and received saline or were treated subcutaneously with free AmpB, AmpB/M or B-AmpB/M. In the results, free AmpB-treated and infected mice showed reductions in their body weight, which were associated with hepatic and renal damage; however, no organic alteration was observed in the AmpB/M-treated animals. In addition, these animals showed significant reductions in their lesion average size and in the parasite burden in all evaluated infected tissue and organs, when compared to the other groups; as well as significantly higher levels of antileishmanial IFN-γ, IL-12, GM-CSF and nitrite, which were associated with low production of IL-4, IL-10 and IgG1 isotype antibodies. In conclusion, this AmpB/M system could be considered as an alternative for future studies in the treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)34-42
Number of pages9
JournalExperimental Parasitology
Volume169
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2016
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Amphotericin B
  • Leishmania amazonensis
  • Poloxamer 407
  • Tegumentary leishmaniasis
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment

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