Evaluation of indigenous grains from the peruvian andean region for antidiabetes and antihypertension potential using in Vitro methods

Lena Galvez Ranilla, Emmanouil Apostolidis, Maria Ines Genovese, Franco Maria Lajolo, Kalidas Shetty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations


The health-relevant functionality of 10 thermally processed Peruvian Andean grains (five cereals, three pseudocereals, and two legumes) was evaluated for potential type 2 diabetes-relevant antihyperglycemia and antihypertension activity using in vitro enzyme assays. Inhibition of enzymes relevant for managing early stages of type 2 diabetes such as hyperglycemia-relevant α-glucosidase and α-amylase and hypertension-relevant angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) were assayed along with the total phenolic content, phenolic profiles, and antioxidant activity based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radical assay. Purple corn (Zea mays L.) (cereal) exhibited high free radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activity (77%) and had the highest total phenolic content (8 ± 1 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample weight) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (51% at 5 mg of sample weight). The major phenolic compound in this cereal was protocatechuic acid (287 ± 15 μg/g of sample weight). Pseudocereals such as Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and Kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) were rich in quercetin derivatives (1,131 ± 56 and 943 ± 35 μg [expressed as quercetin aglycone]/g of sample weight, respectively) and had the highest antioxidant activity (86% and 75%, respectively). Andean legumes (Lupinus mutabilis cultivars SLP-1 and H-6) inhibited significantly the hypertension-relevant ACE (52% at 5 mg of sample weight). No α-amylase inhibitory activity was found in any of the evaluated Andean grains. This in vitro study indicates the potential of combination of Andean whole grain cereals, pseudocereals, and legumes to develop effective dietary strategies for managing type 2 diabetes and associated hypertension and provides the rationale for animal and clinical studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)704-713
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Medicinal Food
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Andean grains
  • Angiotensin I-converting enzyme
  • Antioxidant activity
  • Hypertension
  • Phenolic phytochemicals
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • α-amylase inhibitory activity
  • α-glucosidase inhibitory activity


Dive into the research topics of 'Evaluation of indigenous grains from the peruvian andean region for antidiabetes and antihypertension potential using in Vitro methods'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this